Researchers should make every effort to ensure a fair distribution of risks and benefits and that there is fair access to the benefits of the research.
No one group (such as the poor, mentally disabled, those in developing countries etc) should disproportionately bear the risks of research.
No one group (such as the researchers, people in wealthy countries) should reap all the rewards and benefits of research (in the form of publications, patents, knowledge, etc).
Researchers must provide special protection for vulnerable groups.
Justice does not permit using vulnerable groups - such as low-resource persons - as research participants for the exclusive benefit of more privileged groups.
Recruitment and selection of participants must be done in a fair and equal manner.
Research participants must be informed about the results of the research.