Example of harm from social science research -
Anthropologist Nancy Scheper-Hughes studied the residents of an Irish village in 1975 and 75. She published her book in 1979, the villagers read it and took grave offence at some of its contents, e.g. suggestion that adult brothers and sisters living together harboured "incestual preoccupations and anxieties." When she returned to the village twenty years later they were still angry. "How dare you suggest that there is something not quite right with those God-fearing households of brothers and sisters?" one villager demanded. "What gave you the right to say those things?"
Sudhir Venkatesh was a researcher who was equally remorseful. While researching the underground earnings of residents of a Chicago housing project, Venkatesh naively shared some of his notes with two powerful residents who used the information to extort additional money from their neighbours. He realised "other people were paying a price for my success."